Very exciting articles on recent Egyptology. Or alternative Egyptology, if you would like it more.
In short, article number decipher the reason why pyramids are built the way they were. It also mention the research of West about the actual age of the Sphinx. I read his book and it's very very good (even if somewhat boring-way too many technical details, but I guess that makes it credible).
The second article is even more fun-it's about Egyptian constellations. The fun in that? Very simple.
According to Wikipedia, Khemet (the old name of Egypt) means "the land of the black"-khem-black, met-land. ("met" means land in many languages-like indian and celtic). But from this article, it's obvious that Ikhemw-wredj is a name of constellation. Ikhem is the common word, so it must be related to stars. Then how could Khem mean BLACK??? Stars are usually not black, so it simply doesn't make sense. That means that Khem never meant black, and probably has something to do with "star". And then "khemet" can mean "the land of the stars" or "the land of the people that came from the stars". Wild guess, but whatever it means, "khemet" definitely doesn't mean "the land of the black". Which takes us back to the aliens, nephilims and so on.
What do you think?
Researcher believes he's found key that unlocks Egypt’s advanced scientific knowledge
A real secret message discovered by a local man among Egypt's ancient ruins could be stranger than the fictional stories we love involving Indiana Jones or "The DaVinci Code."
East Stroudsburg-born Edward Nightingale says he has unraveled the most famous of ancient Egyptian riddles.
And he believes his discovery has uncovered a collection of advanced mathematical principles that could change our understanding of matter and the universe.
He also believes this information was intentionally embedded in the blueprint of the ancient ruins, for future generations to discover.The mystery
Nightingale, who lives in Upper Mount Bethel Township in Northampton County, has studied the Giza plateau in Egypt for almost 20 years. He even traveled there with famed Egyptologist John Anthony West to study the ruins.
The Giza plateau lies on the outskirts of Cairo and contains the Great Pyramid, the Great Sphinx and many other historically significant structures. A total of nine pyramids stand on the site.
The construction and layout of the complex, about one square mile in area, has been the subject of scholarly study and adventurer exploits for centuries.
The most well-known of the mysteries is how the actual structures were built. The pyramids include massive blocks of granite and stone, machined to amazing tolerances, and too heavy to move without modern equipment.
But the larger, greater mystery is why the pyramids and other structures are arranged the way they are. Is it haphazard? Surely not, since some of the elements, constructed in different dynasties, were in perfect alignment. There seems to have been some enduring plan.
Three pyramids dominate the Giza complex: the Great Pyramid, or Pyramid of Khufru, the Pyramid of Kahfre and the the Pyramid of Menkaure. The sides of all three pyramids are astronomically oriented to be north-south and east-west, within a small fraction of a degree. Quite a feat, considering the pyramids were built thousand of years ago.
Researchers have been looking into this for centuries. There have been many theories over the years, but none have explained how to take into account all the architectural aspects of the plateau.
"Everybody who was studying this was using the Fibernachi series, and they were coming up with little snippets of what was occurring. But I wanted to allow an open mind without putting myself in that box," Nightingale said. (Fibonacci numbers are a series of figures built by adding the two prior numbers in the series, for example, 1,1,2,3,5,8.)
Other theories have been proposed. A fairly recent and now dominant one by researcher Robert Bauval suggested the arrangement of the three pyramids matched the Belt of Orion, three stars in the midsection of the Orion constellation. A shaft in one of the pyramids points to the spot in the sky Orion occupied thousands of years ago when the pyramid was built.
Nightingale approached the design of the Giza complex as an architect would, by creating a drawing. The complexity of the site was apparent. "They had to have a pretty good plan," he said.
To begin his journey to understanding, Nightingale back-engineered the site. "I examined it as an 'as-built blueprint,'" he said. With laser-accurate surveys, he applied his drafting and design skills.
Nightingale works with geometric shapes when he plans a sculpture, and so he began to see geometrical relationships between elements in the plateau.The Giza Template
Armed with a compass, ruler and an aerial photograph of the Giza plateau, Nightingale began to create an overlay, or template, for the complex.
"As an artist, when I start a project I begin with three things. I establish a center line, a horizontal and a reference point," he said.
Nightingale located the center point by drawing a line off the western face of the Great Pyramid and a bisecting line through the Pyramid of Kahfre.
After locating a center point, he drew a series of related circles and subdivisions, based on the location of a causeway at the site. Based on the simple proportions of a circle, he drew four, dividing the diameter by one-quarter, one-third and one-half, then divided these diameters and radiuses by factors of nine. He then drew lines through intersecting points of the circles and significant elements of the plateau.
With four circles and seven lines, he was able to explain the position of all nine pyramids in the Giza plateau.
Nightingale expressed the proportions of the circles as 4, 3 and 2.
The proportions were important, as they had other references in nature, Nightingale said. Among other things, 4-3-2 is the tuning of an "A" note in the musical scale of the ancients of that era. In music, the first three harmonics are produced at two, three and four times the original note's frequency.
If you square 432, you arrive at the speed of light in miles per second. And when you square the speed of light, you get the basic component of Einstein's theory of the relationship between energy and matter.
Nightingale said the template describes more than just the two-dimensional layout of the plateau. His theory applies to the elevation plans of the complex as well.
"The geometry explains the interiors of the pyramids, where objects like the sarcophagus are located using an elevation view." A sarcophagus is the case in where the mummy is placed at burial.
Nightingale traveled to Egypt in 1997 with Egyptologist West. "I had a few ideas when I started. But I promised myself I'd look at what's really going on," he said.
West is known for his Emmy-winning 1993 NBC documentary with Charlton Heston called "The Mystery of the Sphinx." West showed evidence that the Great Sphinx is thousands of years older than conventionally thought.
West discovered water erosion on the Sphinx. Rain capable of causing that kind of erosion stopped falling on the area thousands of years before the Sphinx was previously thought to have been built. (I have read his book, good stuff!!!)
Nightingale presented his findings to West.
"As Ed will have explained, I'm pretty well convinced that he's solved a major aspect of a puzzle that has intrigued and eluded dozens of ardent researchers for many decades: the geometry upon which the Giza plateau is based." West said.
When Nightingale realized the implications of his discovery, he was overwhelmed.Nature's sequence
Nightingale said his template doesn't just relate to Giza. He has applied it to other ancient ruins. And he said it provides a mathematical framework to describe things as diverse as the structure of spiral constellations, DNA and music.
Nightingale used a nine-based system of numbers to divide the radius and diameters of his circles to determine his template. "That's how nature operates. The nine-based formula is more how nature assembles things," he said.
Nightingale found explanations of music in his theory. "There are sophisticated mathematics, musical proportions that are just stunning. Harmonics if you want to call it that," he said. He also refers to his theory as a harmonic view of nature.
Later, Nightingale and another craftsman were commissioned to do some carvings for Pope Benedict XVI. That led him to study religious symbolism. He found his Giza Template explained the geometry of these symbols.
He even applied it to the Great Seal of the United Sates, made famous in the movie "National Treasure." The template shows eerie alignments on both sides of the seal — as if the template predicts where objects are placed.A secret message
So why was this information coded into the Giza plateau?"Ancient Egypt, the Greek and Roman empires, the Megalithic and Mesopotamian civilizations all collapsed, and their knowledge was lost," author and Egyptologist Walter Cruttenden of the Binary Research Institute said.
Nightingale asks what important items would a civilization want to preserve for future generations besides life? Knowledge, he answers.
"Like Noah's Ark, they created a vessel to store knowledge. It has to last 10,000 years to be read. Since languages change over time, they had to encode it," he said.
They would have had to use geometry, Nightingale said. "I think they are encoding science there," he said.
Nightingale will present his theory, formally, at The Conference on Precession and Ancient Knowledge at the University of California at San Diego on Saturday and Sunday, Oct. 4-5. The conference includes some of the field's greatest experts. Nightingale wants his ideas out in the scientific community, subjected to peer review.
The geometry of the Giza template suggests other places for exploration on the plateau, according to Nightingale.
He plans to expand the application of his theory to other architectural mysteries that have baffled researchers. He's already begun on Stonehenge, which he said his theory explains, and is considering publishing a paper on that as well.
How did the ancients develop this advanced mathematical thinking? And how did they build the pyramids? Did they come from somewhere else?
"I don't have the answer to that. I'm just showing you the blueprint," Nightingale said. "I think it was us, but I think we've forgotten some things. Humanity's legacy is right there, in stone, and we've been looking at it for thousands of years without noticing it.
"I'm not discovering this. I'm just rediscovering what is there," he said.
Ultimately, if Nightingale's ideas are studied and verified by the scientific community, it could take years or even decades before they produce any technological advances. source
My comment:Ok, I have few comments on this. I think that the dude is mistaking the causality. I'm not saying what he found out isn't true, it probably is-it's hard to mistake simple numbers as proportions. The point is-he imply that the Ancients built that monuments in order to tell us something, to tell us about science. I think this assumption is very flawed. First, they may have built it like this, for example, because those proportions are the most Natural ones and thus, they may come as a natural idea of beauty, to them as it is for us. Second, they may have built it like this out of the practical use of those proportions-for a reason we still don't know. There's absolutely no reason why they should have done it, in order to tell us anything.
Secondly, I think the dude again underestimate the knowledge of the people the built them and is either ignorant or shy to share his opinion on Egyptian civilisation and the reasons why they built the pyramids. Anyway, I think it's interesting research that may put the pyramids in different light-them and Pythagoras too.
Ancient Egyptian Astronomy
Professor at Faculty of Letters, Arts, and Sciences, Waseda University Director of Institute of Egyptology, Waseda University
The constellations we are currently familiar with originate from “Ptolemy’s 48 constellations” compiled from ancient Greek constellations by Claudius Ptolemaeus (from 90 A.D. to about 168 A.D.). He was a Greek astronomer flourishing in Alexandria, Egypt in the second century A. D. Though it is believed these constellations originate from Mesopotamia or ancient Greece, there are still various views on the origin of constellations. Ancient Egypt had its own constellations.
1. Constellations specific to ancient Egypt
Ancient Egyptians called the northern stars around the circumpolar star “Ikhemw-sek” (imperishable stars) and the southern stars “Ikhemw-wredj” (unwearying stars). This naming (tireless stars) is probably because the southern stars especially on and about the celestial equator travel a very long distance after they rise above the East horizon before they sink below the West horizon, while the northern stars move counterclockwise around the celestial north pole.
2. Northern constellations, imperishable stars
On ancient Egyptian tombs and ceilings of temples, northern constellations were discovered. These stars are called “Ikhemw-sek” (imperishable stars) because they are generally assumed to be “northern circumpolar stars” never sinking below the horizon. The oldest existing northern constellation is a constellation named “Meskhetyw.” It was drawn as a forefoot of a bull on the interior lid of the wooden coffin for the man named Idy which dated from the First Intermediate Period (from 2145 B.C. to about 2025 B.C.) and was excavated in Asyut. This constellation corresponds to our “Big Dipper.” On the left of the foreleg, hieroglyph showing “Meskhetyw m pet mehetet” (Meskhetyw in the northern sky) was vertically written.
As for representation of the whole northern constellations, the tomb of Senenmut, an official for Hatshepsut (around 1460 B.C.) in the 18th Dynasty in New Kingdom, is widely known. On the top of the center pole, a bull having short legs was drawn together with Meskhety written in hieroglyph. We can see Selket, scorpion-goddess with a sun disk on her head, behind the bull, and a constellation named Anu, a falcon-headed man harpooning the bull, below the bull. Further on the right of the pole, there is a female hippopotamus carrying a crocodile on her back and the astronomical instrument called Merekhet as well as a crocodile in her hands. Also a lying lion, crocodile, and human beings were drawn on the left.
Northern constellations were also found on ceilings of tombs in the Valley of the Kings. Among them, the constellations drawn on the ceiling of the burial chamber in the tomb of Seti I in the 19th Dynasty are famous. Compared to the northern constellations in the tomb of Senenmut in the 18th Dynasty as described before, almost same figures were drawn, but all the figures were not located in the same positions. This implies it makes little sense to identify current constellations with the northern constellations in the tomb of Seti I. This is why it is difficult to determine correspondence between ancient Egyptian constellations and our current constellations.
3. Southern constellations, unwearying stars
There are two famous constellations among the southern stars called Ikhemw-wredj (unwearying stars): a constellation called Sah corresponding to the current Onion's Belt and Sirius called Sepdet. The name Sah was first found in the “Pyramid Text” engraved in the Pyramid of Unas, the last king of the 5th Dynasty, Old Kingdom (reign: from 2340 B.C. to 2320 B.C.). The figures of Sah and Sepdet were also drawn on lids of wooden coffins between the First Intermediate Period and Middle Kingdom. Since Sah represented in hieroglyph was positioned above the head, the Orion's Belt was assumed to be crown on the head of Sah. Further Sepdet (Sirius) opposed to Sah was drawn as goddess with was scepter in her hand.
The tomb of Senenmut as described before also shows a man on board as a figure representing Sah. This man holds Was scepter in his left hand and “Ankh”, symbol of life, in his right hand. Due to his long beard, he is believed to be a god. In ancient Egypt, a male figure with a long beard represents either king or god. Around Sah in the tomb of Senenmut, a constellation composed of big three stars was drawn, which corresponds to the Orion’s Belt. In the lower right position of these three stars, rather little nine stars were aligned vertically toward under Sah’s boat. From this point, we can presume Sah was the constellation containing some stars in addition to the Orion’s Belt.
Sah was also drawn on the uranometry in the Dendera temple constructed at the end of the Ptolemaic Dynasty (around first century B.C.). Though this Sah figure is a man with Was scepter in his hand, he wears an elongate Upper Egyptian king’s crown “white crown.” From the fact that he holds a flail in his right hand and wears a bull’s tail, we can determine this figure represents Osiris.
Jiro Kondo | Quelle: ResearchSEA source