This issue will be dedicated to a connection, I'm finding very curious. Recently I found out that Celts had a kingdom on the Balkans for a while, something I never heard of before, so I decided to look into that more deeply. Why? Because as I already have posted, Thracians were very skilled gold craftsmen. It turns our that Celts also had golden treasures and they weren't bad at it. Now, since we have a long tradition on the Balkans in working with gold, it's clear we didn't take it from them. The question for me is, did they take it from us, something that I find not very probable or was it common. And if it was common for Celts and Thracians, then why it wasn't common for the other tribes. So, here's what I dag on the Celts on the Balkans so far. I'm not saying it's final or a great break trough, but I'll continue to look for things in that direction and we'll see.
First, some iGenea results:
Antic Peoples in Bulgaria
|Thracians 49 %|
|Hellenic People 15 %|
|Slav 15 %|
|Antic Macedonians 11 %|
|Phoenician 8 %|
Y-haplogroups in Bulgaria
|R1b 41 %|
|E1b1b 31 %|
|R1a 28 %|
I did an iGenea test and I wasn't satisfied AT ALL. They only managed to figure my haplogroup - H and that was all. The result was too broad to be of any use, but I had to test it to confirm my suspicions that those data they publish represent very little of the actual population of Bulgaria. Anyway, that was the first step and if you compare the percents in different countries, you'll see we have very close percentage with French people for example. Interesting, right?
Next, we check our languages:
Celtic and Slavic Contact on the Balkan Peninsula
Friday, 20. July 2007, 21:56:21, Daniel Josef
The Celts and Slavs were widespread and important cultural phenomena in Iron-Age Europe.
Their influence is still felt in contemporary Europe and the Americas. Many states and peoples
speak modern languages derived from proto-Celtic and proto-Slavonic. The purpose of my
research is to show that these ancient cultures were once in contact on the Balkan Peninsula. The
ultimate goal is to discover the time period, duration, and social nature of this contact through
examining linguistic evidence of contact present in modern South Slavic (those Slavic languages
spoken on the Balkan Peninsula) and Celtic languages.
In the case of the Celts and South Slavs, there are two type of contact which probably occurred:
mutual trade and political domination of the Celts over the South Slavs. In the case of trade it is
assumed that words dealing with exchangeable commodities would be equally borrowed
between languages. In the case of Celtic political control over the Slavs it is assumed that the
overwhelming majority of words would be borrowed by the Slavs from the Celts, with very little
word borrowing going the other way.
Modern Celtic and South Slavic languages are over 2000 years removed from the time period
when the Celts and Slavs were likely in contact. Any words which appear to have been
borrowed between Celts and Slavs present in modern languages, are probably but a skeleton of
the former borrowed lexicon. Written documents and inscriptions in proto-Slavonic and proto-
Celtic are so scarce that the modern languages are practically the only linguistic data-set we have
for examining this ancient contact.
The first step I have taken is to examine the most complete dictionaries available of the modern
and recently extinct Celtic languages, namely Irish, Scotch Gaelic, Cornish, Manx, Welsh, and
Breton. My examination of these dictionaries involves first learning the basic grammar of each
respective language, including all inflectional and derivational affixes, pronunciation, and some
basic vocabulary. I then became familiar with the available literature on Slavic and Celtic sound
shifts as well as general sound shift trends with all languages. Bearing all of this information in
mind I will examine the entire contents of all the Celtic languages looking for those words that
appear similar to the modern South Slavic languages, namely Slovene, Serbo-Croatian, and
This task has been completed with Welsh and Scotch-Gaelic. 178 words in Welsh and 134 words in Scotch-Gaelic were found to be present in modern South Slavic languages. These
words were determined to be borrowings based on recognizable sound shifts and lack of parallels
in other European languages with Indo-European roots.
It will be important for chronological reasons to obtain data from all six Celtic languages. The
Celtic languages are divided into two families: Goidellic (Irish, Manx, and Scotch Gaelic) and
Brythonic (Cornish, Welsh, and Breton). The Goidellic-speaking Celts split from the Brythonic
Celts between 1000 and 600 BC, isolating themselves on the British Isles. This split caused the
two language groups to evolve in different directions. If a major distinction in the quantity of
words from Goidellic and Brythonic languages present in the South Slavic languages is evident,
it may be possible to date the linguistic influence of the South Slavs and Celts on each other
between 1000 BC and 50 AD. 50 AD represents a general date for when the Celts ceased to
inhabit the Danube region.
The archaeological record shows the Celts to have been a
more advanced Chieftain society which often dominated those it came in contact with. On the
other hand, the early Slavs were less organized band societies who were often dominated by
more organized cultures. The borrowed words between Celtic and South Slavic languages will
be useful in determining the validity of either of these archaeologically-based assumptions.
In compiling this data it will also be necessary to find a way to explain the contact between Celts
and Slavs. The main problem is that the Celts left the Balkan area, and almost all of continental Europe before 50 AD while the Slavs did not arrive on the Balkan peninsula until 500 AD at the earliest. Alternative theories such as a Slavic genesis within the Balkan area will be examined in
order to explain the overwhelming amount of linguistic evidence linking South Slavic languages
with Scotch-Gaelic and Welsh, and likely the other Celtic languages as well. The linguistic
evidence shows contact between peoples who were separated by almost 500 years according to
conventional histories. The linguistic data needs an explanation. source
My comment: Ok, first, as the author states - Celts and Slavs didn't have a contact. Celts has contact with Thracians (Traki people), so it's clear that this study will help us even better understand the connection between Thracians and Celts and Thracians and Slavs - a connection that is even more controversial. Unfortunately I wasn't able to find the complete study, maybe the author abandoned it.
http://www.eliznik.org.uk/EastEurope/History/history-BC.htm Here you can find some maps showing the history of the Balkans 8th c.B.C-1st century A.D.
The most interesting map is this, and it says that Celts stayed on the Balkans from 280 to 210 B.C. I know they had a capital called Tile. Interesting, right? More about that, you can see on the link below:
BULGARIA - a brief history outline Dimiter Markovski
I have not read everything yet, but it mentions the Celts. And it's a good way to get an idea about the Thraki people.
You can learn a lot about the Celts from Wikipedia. What I find the most interesting, however, is their attitude toward women which match that of the Thraki - women have been seen to participate into battles and be rulers. Which is very very interesting. And check out this cool response that a Celtic woman gave to a Roman woman blaming her for promiscuity:
"We fulfill the demands of nature in a much better way than do you Roman women; for we consort openly with the best men, whereas you let yourselves be debauched in secret by the vilest." Nice, huh! And also interesting is that obviously many of the Celts were at least bisexual if not completely homosexual. I like those guys :)
Now, some more recent stuff:
Evidence unearthed of possible mass cannibalism in Neolithic EuropeDecember 7, 2009 by Lin Edwards
(PhysOrg.com) -- Archaeologists studying a 7,000-year-old site in what is now south-west Germany have found evidence suggesting that more than 500 people may have been the victims of cannibalism.
Evidence of cannibalism in Neolithic Europe is rare, but hundreds of remains excavated at a site near the village of Herxheim have markings suggestive of cannibalism. One of the authors of the research paper, Dr Bruno Boulestin of the University of Bordeaux in France, said his team had found bones with markings similar to those found on the remains of animals that have been spit roasted. They also found cuts suggestive of meat being scraped from the bones, and bones with the ends broken, as if to facilitate scraping out the marrow.
Dr Boulestin said the cuts and markings on the bones provided evidence the bodies of the more than 500 victims, including children and fetuses, were intentionally mutilated, and the victims were butchered and eaten in the same way as animals.
So far the remains of about 500 humans and a large number of dogs have been found buried in oval pits. The pits also contained pottery, which suggests the remains were accumulated over only a few decades. The remains date from the early Neolithic period, when farming had spread into Europe.
Two German scientists, Miriam Haidle and Jorg Orschiedt, who have previously studied bones found at the site dismiss Dr Boulestin's theory of cannibalism and suggest the removal of flesh was more likely to have been part of a reburial ritual.Herxheim and other settlements were abandoned around the time of the deaths of the people, about 7,000 years ago, which may indicate there was a social crisis of some kind at the time. source
My comment: Another theory can be found here according to which this is actually "the dead were reburied at Herxheim following dismemberment and removal of flesh from bones. Evidence of ceremonial reburial practices has been reported for many ancient societies." Why I post this here? Because I find it extremely curious that some societies have a very odd way to bury the dead. For example breaking limbs, ripping flesh, taking the head off. And they don't do it out of rage, for them, this is a respectful reburial. And some societies like Thracians won't consider suicide for something bad. Some societies (Thracians also) will bury the wife with the husband and she will consider it an honesty, not a tragedy. And all this differs from our traditional respect for the dead. It's quite interesting as an attitude toward death and the dead.
French introduced farming to Britain: studyDecember 8, 2009
(PhysOrg.com) -- Simon Fraser University archeologists Mark Collard and Kevan Edinborough and colleagues from University College London have uncovered evidence that French farmers introduced agriculture to Britain some 60 centuries ago.
The researchers note that without the civilizing influence of their Gallic neighbours, the Brits might have continued running around with spears for hundreds of years more instead of cultivating plants and animals.
Their work, published in the most recent Journal of Archeological Science, contradicts previous theories that indigenous British hunter-gatherers developed farming independently.
The archeologists studied carbon-14 dates for bones, wood and grains from about 6,000 years ago at locations throughout Great Britain and determined that the population of the island more than quadrupled in just 400 years.
“We also found evidence that this increase occurred first in southern England and shortly afterwards in central Scotland,” says Collard, an associate professor and Canada Research Chair in human evolutionary studies.
“These findings are best explained by groups of farmers from the Continent independently colonizing England and Scotland,” most likely from Brittany in northwest France.source
My comment: Of course, I don't care about French and Brits, what I care is Celts, Gallics and Thracians. The relation Celts between Gallic is clear, so the question is how this relates to ancient Thracia. Because 6000 years ago is ~4 000 years before the Celts came to the Balkans. We know that on the Balkans there were farmers by that time. The question is did the Celts learn about farming from the Balkans or did they all know it at the same time. In which case, one should ask how did they all figured it all at approximately the same time?
Bulgaria Archaeologists Present Unique Thracian Tomb FindsArchaeology | November 17, 2009, Tuesday
A team of Bulgarian archaeologists led by Veselin Ignatov formally presented Tuesday their finds from the tomb of an aristocrat from Ancient Thrace near the southern town of Nova Zagora.
In October and November 2009, Ignatov’s team found a burial tomb of dated back to the end of 1st century and beginning of 2nd century AD, located outside of the village of Karanovo, in southern Bulgaria.
The finds at the lavish Thracian tomb include gold rings, silver cups and vessels coated with gold and clay vessels. Those include two silver cups with images of love god Eros, and a number of other ornate silver and bronze vessels.
The aristocrat belonged to a rich family descended from the ruling strata in the Odrysian Kingdom (5-3rd century BC).Ignatov said a total of six two-wheel and four-wheel chariots have been discovered in the region, and that he had the idea of creating a center for the study of ancient chariots in Nova Zagora. sourceMy comment:
French find puts humans in Europe 200,000 years earlierDecember 15, 2009
Experts on prehistoric man are rethinking their dates after a find in a southern French valley suggested our ancestors may have reached Europe 1.57 million years ago: 200,000 years earlier than we thought.
What provoked the recount was a pile of fossilised bones and teeth uncovered 15 years ago by local man Jean Rouvier in a basalt quarry at Lezignan la Cebe, in the Herault valley, Languedoc.The subsequent dig uncovered a large variety of ancient animal bones: cattle, deer, horses and also of carnivorous animals related to cats and dogs.
More importantly however, about 10 metres (yards) down and under the basalt layer, the team found 20 or so tools, most of which bore traces of use.
The surprise came when argon dating showed the site went back 1.57 million years -- substantially older than many other prehistoric sites -- according to a paper published in the specialist journal, Comptes Rendus Palevol.
In comparison, the first such tools in East Africa date back to 2.5 million years ago, while human settlements in the Transcaucasia region date back to a 1.8 million years ago. source
Absence of evidence for a meteorite impact event 13,000 years agoDecember 8, 2009
An international team of scientists led by researchers at the University of Hawaii at Manoa have found no evidence supporting an extraterrestrial impact event at the onset of the Younger Dryas ~13000 years ago. source
And yeah, Happy Baba Marta to everyone :)